Leaffall, as a seasonal phenomenon, occurs in each plant at a specific time. It depends on the type of tree, its age and the climate.
Poplars and oaks part with their leaves in the past, then the time for rowan trees comes. The apple tree of one of the latter drops its leaves and, even in winter, may still have a few leaves on it.
A poplar leaffall begins at the end of September, and by mid-October it completely ends. Young trees retain their leaves longer and later turn yellow.
Oaks begin to lose their leaves at the beginning of September and lose their crown completely after a month. If frost begins earlier, leaffall is much faster. Acorns begin to crumble together with the leaves of the oak.
Riabin begins to fall in early October and continues to delight in its pink leaves until November 1. It is believed that after the rowan leaves are separated from the last ones, the frosty cold days begin.
Leaves on the apple begin to turn golden by 20 September. By the end of this month, leaffall begins. The last leaves crumble from the apple tree in the second half of October.
Leaves play a big role in the life of trees and shrubs. They help to create and store nutrients as well as accumulate mineral components. However, in winter, when there is an acute shortage of light and therefore no food, the leaves only increase the consumption of useful components and cause excessive evaporation of moisture.
Coniferous plants, which most often grow in areas with a fairly harsh climate, are in great need of food, so do not drop their needles that act as leaves. The conifers are perfectly adapted to the cold. In the needles are concentrated in a lot of pigment chlorophyll, which converts nutrients from light. In addition, they have a small area, which significantly reduces the evaporation of much-needed moisture from their surface in winter. The needles are protected against cold weather by a special wax coating, and thanks to the substance contained in them, they do not freeze even in severe frosts. The air captured by the needles creates a kind of insulation layer around the tree.
The only coniferous plant that breaks up with its needles in winter is larch. It appeared in ancient times, when summers were very hot and winters incredibly frosty. This peculiarity of the climate led to larch dropping its needles, and there was no need to protect them from cold.
the days are getting shorter, and the sun is no longer generously sharing its warmth with the earth, one of the most beautiful seasons of the year is coming – autumn. Like a mysterious sorceress, it changes the world around and fills it with juicy and unusual colors. The most remarkable of these wonders happen to plants and shrubs. They are among the first to respond to the changes in weather and autumn. They have three months ahead of them to prepare for winter and part with their main jewelry – leaves. But first, the trees will surely please everyone around them with their shades of colour and crazy colors, and fallen leaves will carefully cover the ground and protect the smallest inhabitants from severe frost.
Trees and shrubs in the fall. Autumn changes
In autumn, some of the most important changes in the life of trees and shrubs take place: changes in leaf colour and leaffall. Each of these phenomena helps them to prepare for winter and survive such a harsh time of year.
For deciduous trees and shrubs, one of the main problems during the winter season is lack of moisture, so in autumn all the nutrients begin to accumulate in the roots and core, and leaves fall off. A leaffall not only helps to increase moisture reserves, but also to save them. The fact is that the leaves evaporate the liquid very much, which is very wasteful in winter. Coniferous trees, in turn, can afford to use needles also in the cold season, because the evaporation of liquid from them is very slow.
Another reason for leaffall is the great risk for the branches to be broken under the pressure of the snow cap. If fluffy snow fell not only on the branches themselves but also on their leaves, they could not withstand such a heavy burden.
In addition, many harmful substances accumulate in the leaves over time, to get rid of which is obtained only with leaffall.
One of the recently solved puzzles is the fact that the deciduous trees, placed in a warm environment, and thus do not need to prepare for the cold, also drops the leaves. This suggests that the deciduous fall is not so much about changing seasons and preparing for winter as an important part of the life cycle of trees and shrubs.
Why do leaves change colour in autumn?
Trees and shrubs in the autumn. Autumn changes
As autumn comes, trees and shrubs decide to change the emerald colour of their leaves to brighter and more unusual colours. In this case, each tree has its own set of pigments – “paints”. These changes are due to the fact that the leaves contain a special substance, chlorophyll, which turns light into nutrients and makes the leaves green. When the tree or shrub begins to store moisture, and it no longer reaches the emerald leaves, and the sunny day becomes much shorter, chlorophyll begins to break down into other pigments, which give the autumn world of scarlet and gold tones.
The brightness of autumn colours depends on the weather conditions. If it is sunny and relatively warm outside, the autumn leaves will be bright and motley, and if it often rains, brown or dull yellow.
This small tree or tall shrub has an exotic look and looks attractive all year round. Most members of the Suma genus grow in a warmer climate and the only member who has acclimatized to the middle zone is the Suma deer (Rhus typhina).
In autumn, the leaves of Sumachi light up in carmine red and purple tones, and some specimens may also have yellow colour. The colouring of the tree is similar throughout autumn.
One of the most popular garden shrubs, which has found wide application in landscape design and won the love of gardeners. Especially popular are the numerous motley turf shapes, which can be creamy white or yellow edged, and the contrasting light veins. Varieties with white marks on their leaves turn into pink in autumn.
Probably the most popular hedge shrub next to the spire. The Cotoneaster lucidus is so often used in urban landscaping that it’s probably “used up”. But in autumn it is impossible to take your eyes off this shrub, because it turns into a real kaleidoscope, forming colorful patterns of all sorts of shades of autumn leaves. Yellow, orange, red, pink and green colours and their shades are present on one bush and even on each individual leaf at the same time.
Probably, while walking through the forest in autumn, many people noticed low bushes, which look out from the trunks of other trees with bright pink leaves. Birch bark beard (Euonymus verrucosus) is most often found in the middle forest, which can be identified by rugged dark growths (“warts”) on stalks.
5 Viburnum opulus
Common potatoes (Viburnum opulus) have many varieties. Some of them were created with a focus on the food use of bush berries and have larger fruits with softer flavour. For example: “Maria, Sauzga, Xanthocarpum (with orange and yellow fruits). Others focus on ornamental use of shrubs: ‘Nanum’ (low-growth shape not exceeding 60 centimeters), ‘Park Harvest’ (with golden leaves throughout the season).
Barbaris is loved by many gardeners, because it combines high ornamentation and unpretentiousness. Barbaris has a huge variety of colors and types of bushes and they are all very attractive in the autumn. Three types of barberry are the most common in the culture: barberry tunberga (Berberis thunbergii), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and Ottawa barberry (berberis ottawensis).
The main living conditions for a barberry are a sunny place or a light penumbra and well-drained soil.
Spiraea, which flower in the first half of summer (vangueta, arguta, gray and others), most often keep green leaves on the branches for a long time, so they serve as a good background for trees and shrubs, whose leaves blaze with bright colors. Later, their leaves turn yellowish, and some varieties have separate twigs with motley-coloured leaves.
This shrub is quite common in urban landscaping, but not many gardeners pay attention to it, because the most common species – ordinary turquoise (Ligustrum vulgare) has a discreet appearance and without formation grows a fairly high shrub 3-4 meters high.
9. Azalia Japanese foliage
In fact, the Japanese azalea is a deciduous species of rhododendron. The flowers of this azaleia are absolutely identical in size and shape to the rhododendrons. Most often the inflorescences of Japanese azaleas are painted in various shades of orange, from paleo to orange-red. Some varieties also have yellow and two-colour flowers.
Erin Benzakein is the founder of Floret Flower Farm, and is known for her lush, vibrant, romantic floral designs. She pushes the limits of what can be used in bouquets, which led to her winning the Martha Stewart American Made award for Floral and Event Design.